The name of our country is Bangladesh, enriched with drilling crops & greens, mother of rivers in this Bangladesh with the Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Buriganga & Tista numerous of rivers which are crosses as like as net, there are 06 (six) seasons in Bangladesh, existing in this country such as- the Summer, the rainy, early Autumn, late Autumn, Winter & Spring season. In this season Bangla there bloomed separated character. summer season it is amazed by the mango & jackfruit, in the rainy season the rivers, canals remains fill up to the water, in the rural area the sound of rain on the tin Share house is listened, very sweet, In the early autumn when the kash-flower besides the river move by the light wind seeing that mind becomes full. In the late autumn season in the villages the farmers harvest of paddy and keep it in the house, house to house the festival of new rice is celebrated. After that it Starts of the Winter Season, In the winter the guest birds comes to our countries and the amaze at the seashore areas of our country and make incepting the tourists rather, in all the seasons among our territorial birds as such, Doyel, Shalik, Cuckoo, Dove, little bird chandana, tuntuni, chroue, Babui, Masranga, Tota, Tia, Bulbuli, Batthokra, yellow bird, white balaka, kani balaka and many other birds. The description the spring knows no bounds. The poets & literatures have written many literature & poems about springs, new leaves grows in the tress to tress, flowers bloom, the birds clamor, the nature became enriched with new shapes. In the six seasons of the country the vegetables, fruits are grown, they do work as prevention of diseases. Those will eat will be free from various diseases. So, the British people designated it's name the `Sonar Bangla'. So. they told let free all over the world but Bangladesh might be included in Britain and For this there are many designs in the Barmingham Palace in the Britain and the same design are seen in the west Bengal (West Bengal Victoria Park). The National anthem of this country is `Amar Sonar Bangla......... (Written by Rabindranath Tagar), the national flower- water Lily, the national fruit is jackfruit, the national bird is Doyel, the national Fish is- Hilsha. There are many minerals in the dept of the soil of this country.
In ancient period this country was rules over by the Mughol, Nowab, Britain there have been created many histories. In 1947 AD through the division of India & Pakistan it was initiated east & West Pakistan. In 1952 AD the youths jumped into fight to preserve the mother language, this is not observed in history of the world. In 1966 AD the agitation to forfeit the education policy, 1969 AD the mass anarchy and 1971 AD through a bleeding fight for long 09 (nine) month he have achieved freedom. Further, this country is called `Bir Bangalir Sonar Bangla' There are many example regarding this country, In this country many meritorious, Virtuous great men was born in this country, there are 03 (three) nos. Bengali People who won the Nobel Prize, among them Rabindranath thaqure gained such price in 1913 AD vide the creating of Gitanjali. Amottye Sen gained this prize in 1998 AD in economics and in 2006 AD Dr. Yunus got this prize in micro-credit. The measuring of the country is 1,47,570 Sq. Km., at present time the total population in this country is 14 corer. Among the 192 independent countries the situation of our country is 136 th , according to the measuring the situation of this country is 90 th and according to the population it's situation is 07 th . In this country there are Muslim, Hindu, Christian, Buddhist and many other communities of people. There are existing various cultures, many kinds of songs as such- Jari, Sari, Palli, Murshidi, Vatiali, Lalon & many other songs that touch the mind of the every People. There are 06 (six) divisions in Bangladesh. And these are Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi & Barisal, Each division are possesses individual characteristics as such- Dhaka is called the city of Mosque, Chittagong is called the City of port & commercial City, Khulna is called the City of industries, the Sylhet is called the City of tea garden, Rajshahi is called the City of Mangoes, Amra & paddy are available in Barisal, Barisal is called the City the venish of Bangla too. This country is surrounded by India by the side of North, West & East, to south-east there situates the Mayanmar and to the north the sea-shore area. In this country is enriched with numerous information & data. Among are there are existing many comics regarding the known & unknown history tale. Within this side by the various information & picture the beauties of this country various stages arising in the list we will face our curiosity. Including that with picture the traveling history, various features, story, poem, model & pictured information/news. The people of home & abroad do required to know the subject matters, upholding those subject matter in this side we will try to face the necessity of all people, this is our expectation. It is our aim & objective to bloom out the reflection of Bangladesh in this side.
The People's Republic Of Bangladesh
Dhaka (Area 414 sq. km. Master plan 777 sq.km.)
Currency unit is Taka. Notes are of 1,2,5,10,20,50,100 and 500 Taka. Coins are of 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 Poisha (100 Poisha = 1 Taka)
Bangla is the state language. English is also widely spoken and understood. Arabic is read and spoken for religious purposes
Total estimated population 130 million.
Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, others 1.2%
Total: 144,000 sq km
Land: 133,910 sq km
Water: 10,090 sq km
Latitude from 20 degree 34' to 26 degree 38' north. Longitude from 88 degree 01' to 92 degree 41' east.
Bounded by India from the north, east and west, Burma from the south-east and the Bay of Bengal from the south .
Tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Lowest 47" and highest 136"
National Martyrs Day ( February 21)
Independence Day ( March 26 )
Victory Day ( December 16)
Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Madhumati, Surma and Kushiara
Rice, jute, tobacco, tea, sugarcane, vegetables, potato, pulses, etc.
Mango, banana, pineapple, jack-fruit, water-melon, green coconut, guava, lichis, etc.
Jute, sugar, paper, textiles, fertilizers, cigarette, cement, steel, natural gas, oil-refinery, newsprint, power generation, rayon, matches, fishing and food processing, leather, soap, carpet, timber, ship-building, telephone, etc.
Zia International Airport, Dhaka, Chittagong International Airport, Sylhet International Airport and domestic airports at Jessore, Sylhet, Cox's Bazar, Rajshahi and Saidpur
Longest sea beach, colorful tribal life, centuries' old archeological sites, the Sundarbans (home of the Royal Bengal Tigers and spotted deer), largest tea gardens, interesting riverine life, etc.
A Long Way to Freedom
The contradiction of the two Pakistans , the racial oppression and the exploitation of the West over the East was gradually unveiled. The struggle for the consciousness of identity and cultural freedom which began with the advent of the student movements of the 60's gained momentum in the mass movement of 1969. Though it brought about the fall of a mighty military ruler like Ayub Khan, the ultimate goal was not achieved. After this, came the election of 1970 with absolute victory of Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman.
In the elections of December 7, 1970 the Awami League won 160 out of 162 seats in East Pakistan, all but two, and would have had a clear majority in the new assembly had it been convened. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the majority party leader of the Pakistan National Assembly.
The military rules of Pakistan refused to allow the Awami League to form a government. Major General Ziaur Rahman on behalf of Mujib declared independence. A full scale movement of non-cooperation with the military government began on the 26th of March, 1971 which is celebrated as the Independence Day every year. Thus Bangladesh plunged into a civil war.
The Pakistan Army began their genocide by attacking the innocent Bangalees of Dhaka city. The dwellers of Dhaka city never confronted such intolerable days. The Pakistani army massacred 35,000 Bengali intellectuals and unleashed a brutal war against the Bangalees of East Pakistan to prevent their secession. But no one let the dream encircled flag fall down to dust .
During the nine month struggle which ensued an estimated three million Bengalis died and and ten million refuges fled into India Sheikh Mujib was imprisoned in west Pakistan. A Bangladesh Government in exile was established. The actual military campaign took place in December and lasted only ten days. The Indian Army launched a massive offensive against the Pakistani forces to support the Bangladesh movement . On December 16, 1971 , the Pakistan army surrendered.
21 February was proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by UNESCO on 17 November 1999. Its observance was also formally recognized by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution establishing 2008 as the International Year of Languages.
International Mother Language Day originated as the international recognition of Language Movement Day, which has been commemorated in Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) since 1952, when a number of Bangladeshi university students were killed by the East Pakistan police and army in Dhaka.
International Mother Language Day is observed yearly by UNESCO member states and at its headquarters to promote linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism.
In August 1947, a new state called Pakistan, comprising two far-flung wings in the west and east, separated by 1600 kilometers of foreign territory, emerged on the world map. The ideological basis of that strange phenomenon was the absurd and pernicious two nation theory of Mr. Jinnah that ignored such basic elements as language and culture and considered religion as a bond strong and sufficient enough to transform a people into a nation.
The language of the people of eastern wing of Pakistan, and they were the majority, was Bangla. It had a rich tradition of literature of over a thousand years. The Bangalees also had a highly developed culture that had little in common with the culture of the people of western wing of Pakistan. The Bangalees' love for and attachment to their language and culture were great and when in 1952 the neo-colonial, power-hungry, arrogant rulers of Pakistan declared that ‘Urdu and Urdu alone would be the state language of Pakistan, they sowed the seed of its future disintegration.
The people of the then East Pakistan, particularly the students, rose in angry protest against the vicious undemocratic designs of the government. Those designs really amounted to the destruction of Bangla language and culture and imposition of the language and culture of the people of western wing on the people of eastern wing. The reaction was strong and spontaneous.
The government decided to quell protests by brute force. The police opened fire on 21st February 1952 on unarmed peaceful protesters, most of whom were students, resulting in the death, among others, of Rafiq, Barkat, Jabbar and Salam. As the news of those deaths spread, the entire people of the eastern wing felt greatly involved emotionally. Those who lost their lives to uphold the prestige defend the rights of their mother-language became hallowed martyrs.
Their sacrifice at once tragic glorious and the indignation of the people against an autocratic government had far reaching effect. 21st February became a symbol and attained mythic properties, it nourished the concepts of democracy and secularism. It also contributed significantly to the flowering of Bangalee nationalism. It led to the dawning of the realization in the minds of the Bangalees that they constituted a separate nation and their destiny lay not with Pakistan but elsewhere as an independent country. The subsequent democratic mass movements of the late fifties, throughout the sixties and the seventies, and finally the struggle for independence and the war of liberation owed a great deal to 21st February.
From 1953 onwards, starting from 21st February 1953, the immortal 21st February has been observed as a great national event all over Bangladesh, and also beyond the frontiers of Bangladesh: in several places of India, UK, USA, Canada and elsewhere, wherever there is a sizeable concentration of Bangla speaking people. Yet so long, it has been mainly a national event of Bangladesh. But with the declaration of 21st February as the International Mother Language Day, it has transcended the national borders of Bangladesh and acquired an international significance and a global dimension.
At the initiative of the United Nations and its various organs, a number of specific days have been declared over the years as international days for observance by the people of the whole world. All these days highlight some values, events and issues and are intended to generate a healthy awareness in the people of the world about them with the ultimate aim of making this world a better place to live in for the entire human population. Thus we have the international literacy day, international women's day. international children's day, the international day for eradication of racial discrimination, international day for ensuring pure drinking water, international habitat day, international day for preservation of environment and many others.
Some of these international days are linked with certain specific events that took place in some specific countries. While observing these days, the people of the world recall those events and those countries as a matter of course. The world is thus brought closer providing peoples of the world with the chance to get out of their insularity.
International Mother Language Day is particularly significant in the sense that it has a cultural importance. From now on, 21st February — so long observed in Bangladesh as the Bangla Language Martyrs' Day — will be observed here simultaneously as the Bangla Language Martyrs' Day and the International Mother Language Day. And in nearly 200 countries of the world, various peoples speaking various languages and belonging to various national cultures will observe 21st February as the International Mother Language Day. They will naturally celebrate their own mother languages, but while doing so, it is more than likely that they will refer to Bangladesh and the Language Movement launched by her people that reached a climactic point on 21st February 1952.
The declaration made by the UNESCO in November 1999 designating 21st February as the International Mother Language Day has placed Bangladesh on the cultural map of the world with a highly positive image. We, people of Bangladesh, should now do all that we can to further develop our mother language Bangla in all branches of knowledge so that it can play a worthy role in the community of world languages. We shall love, cherish and promote Bangla, our own mother language, but we shall not indulged in any kind of chauvinism.
While devotedly serving our own language, we shall respect the languages of all the peoples of the world make 21st February - The International Mother Language Day - a great day, to be observed worldwide in the new century and the millennium that we have recently stepped into. Long live 21st February the International Mother Language Day!
Six Season in Bangladesh:
Barsa (June to August) Rainy Season
In Bangladesh, which has both the world's largest delta system and the greatest flow of river water to the sea, water rules the earth, and so the most important season of all is barsa, a time of lashing rains and tearing winds. In this season, 70 percent of the land is under water – water from rivers, the sea, rain, tidal waves, floods and the melting snows of the Himalayas. The rains are at first a welcome relief from the baking, dusty hot season. But as the rains continue, the land turns into a brown and watery mass, ever-changing in shape and texture. Fields and homes are flooded; people and animals have to move to higher ground. Food is reduced to pre-cooked rice, dal and jackfruit that ripen at this time. During the rains, most villages are isolated, accessible only by boat. The people become self-sufficient and depend on each other rather than the outside world. The rain has turned stagnant water fresh again. Children leap naked into ponds. Women swim in sarees. Men dive in wearing sarongs. It is during the rainy season that Bangladesh's main crop, jute, begins to ripen and is harvested. Farmers dive down to the roots to cut them. The stalks are placed on high ground to dry. Aside from the practical problems, the rains and water also inspire the poetry, art and songs of the people.
Sarat (September to October) Autumn
As September begins, the skies are blue and a cool wind blows. The land turns into a carpet of bright green rice shoots while the smell of drying jute invades the air. Flowers bloom, the rice ripens and the harvest begins. Blue, gold and green are the colours of sarat – blue sky, golden sun and green vegetation from emerald to jade, pea to lime, shamrock to sea-green. In the green fields, white Siberian cranes, egrets and ducks hunt for food. Although the air is humid, there is a slight chill late at night.
Hemanto (October to November) Late autumn
Once the land has emerged from its watery grave, it is time to replant in new, fertile soil that is rich in nutrients. During this season, the land is at its luscious best. Festivals flourish to hail the harvest, the end of the floods, the coming of the new soil and the wonder of the rivers. The country's troubadours are everywhere, dressed in bright clothes and singing for money. The land and its people come to life during hemanto, when the flowers bloom – jasmine, water lily, rose, magnolia, hibiscus and bougainvillea. By the season's end, the air is no longer humid. Fresh scents replace the dry jute smell. Hemanto marks the start of the wedding season where receptions are held under red, blue, green or white tents.
Seet (November to December) Winter
From mid-November to early January, the weather becomes more arid and less humid. The earth dries and dust forms. Warm clothes are pulled out. Young people play tennis, football, cricket and golf. Seet is also the season when people return to their ancestral villages, where they can experience once again the essence of Bangladesh – the harmony of man, beast, land, water and air.
Basanto (December to February) Spring
The coolest days are from mid-December to February when the days are golden with light, the flowers are blooming and the nights and early mornings are chilly. Night guards wrap themselves up in shawls and blankets with scarves and hats pulled down over their ears. During basanto, the countryside hums with fairs, parades and commemorations. Arts festivals celebrate painting and handicrafts, poetry, music and drama. In Dhaka, basanto heralds the beginning of the social season with a frantic whirl of invitations to weddings, parties and dinners. Along with the cool weather comes the nation's silly season – politics. To a Bangladeshi, politics is what alcohol or sport is to other nations. Everyone gets involved.
Grisma (March to May) Summer
Throughout basanto, the weather warms up a bit each day until March 1, when the heat starts intensifying more rapidly. The soil turns a dusty khaki and then almost white. There are lightening and thunder storms and sometimes, icy lumps of hail crash down. The rivers dry out and are difficult to navigate. Grisma is also the peak time for the brick industry. Bricks are used for building and are a substitute for stone and gravel in Bangladesh. In the cities, the humid air is laden with dust, brick grit and auto fumes. The sun is a round red globe, beating down relentlessly. Everyone waits for the rains and the beginning of another cycle of seasons.
Description of Political Philosophy
Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown—if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy.
Three central concerns of political philosophy have been the political economy by which property rights are defined and access to capital is regulated, the demands of justice in distribution and punishment, and the rules of truth and evidence that determine judgments in the law.
Bangladesh: A Poor Muslim Democracy
Bangladesh is an interesting puzzle. It is representative of the contemporary postmodern condition when nothing is clear-cut. It is at once both highly developed as well as underdeveloped. Bangladesh is a country that is economically backward and politically quite advanced. Many political and social scientists have often equated democracy with development and capitalism with political freedom. Bangladesh belies both these assumptions. It is a reasonably free society while being one of the world’s poorest economies. Even the Freedom House ratings, which are quite biased against non-Western societies in their measurements, rate Bangladesh as a reasonably free state.
In July of this year, the present government of the Awami League party with Sheikh Hasina Wajid as Prime Minister will complete one full electoral cycle. For a nation that has existed for only 30 years this is quite an achievement. In fact, if one were to compare the Bangladeshi democracy with the American democracy at the age of thirty, the nation of Bengalis will come out quite favorably. In 200 years, the US has yet to allow a woman to run the state.
Bangladesh has already had two women heads of state and the present head of the government, Sheikh Hasina, and the leader of the opposition party, Begum Zia, are both women. It is amazing that this country of a hundred million Muslims looks like a matriarchical society, belying another myth that associates patriarchy with Muslim culture. Bangladesh apparently is destined to destroy widely held myths. First by its very origins it has exploded the myth of Islamic unity. By breaking away from Pakistan, Bangladesh has shown that asabiyyah (Ibn Khaldun’s term for ethnic solidarity) can at times overwhelm Islamic unity. Perhaps the rupture of the united Pakistan is more a commentary on the lip service given to Islamic brotherhood by Muslim leaders than the relative powers of Islam and ethnicity. Nonetheless, the very existence of Bangladesh is a blow to the rhetoric of Islamic unity that most Muslims like to crow about. The present day Muslims of Bangladesh live in greater harmony with its 11% Hindu minority than they did with Muslims of non-Bengali origins.
Bangladesh is not the only case where interests other than Islamic unity have proven more powerful. The quick disintegration of the United Arab Republic, a union of Syria and Egypt that combined Islam, asabiyyah (Arab nationalism) and external threat (from Israel), is another case of Islamic entities splitting for interests other than Islam.
The second myth that Bangladesh has exposed is the claim by some Muslims and many westerners that Islam and democracy are incompatible. Bangladesh while not exactly an exemplary democracy or an advertisement for Islamic governance has nevertheless succeeded in demonstrating that a community dominated by Muslims can have Islam as the state religion and still provide democratic rights to its citizens and freedom of religion to its minorities.
Yes, there are cases of religious discrimination and harassment of minorities in Bangladesh. For example in 1992, when the Babri Masjid was destroyed in India by Hindu nationalists nearly 80 Hindu temples were desecrated in Bangladesh as an act of revenge. If what the Hindus did was a travesty, then what the Bangladeshi Muslims did was 80 times worse. Also in April, unknown miscreants blew a Roman Catholic Church. But these infrequent tragedies apart, Bangladesh is striving to be a good state that treats all its citizens justly.
Its constitution at least is determined to do justice to all. It recognizes the primacy of Islam (Article 2A) but guarantees the freedom of religion of all communities (Article 41). Article 11 of the constitution asserts that the Republic will be a democracy that respects all the human rights and freedoms of all its citizens. Article 39 specifically protects the freedom of speech and expression of every citizen (39a) and 39b guarantees the freedom of the press.
Cynics, especially those who neither understand nor respect democratic principles, maybe tempted to underestimate the importance of their constitution. However, the key is their implementation. In the era of globalization and global interdependence, having these rights enshrined in the constitution is an important first step. International pressure, especially from NGOs and human rights activists has a greater impact on states that already claim to respect these rights. Often moving court in cases of human rights violations provides effective remedy. But in states whose constitutions do not already enshrine human rights; states can continue to violate their own citizens with impunity leaving no recourse to domestic as well as international human rights activists.
As already discussed above Bangladeshis have also shown that Muslim societies allow women more opportunities for self-expression in the public arena than they are given credit for. Bangladeshi women are not only well integrated into the political arena but are also quite active in the economic sphere. The micro-enterprise project (Grameen Bank) initiated by Dr. Muhammad Yunus has shown that empowering women is an important strategy to fight poverty and underdevelopment. Bangladeshi women have shown that while remaining within the moral sphere of Islamic values, women can play an important role in the economic well being of their immediate families and the political well being of their nation.
Yes, indeed Bangladesh is a highly developed state in political terms. But sadly it exposes an American myth that prosperity follows freedom. Bangladesh is a “poor democracy”. Its per capita income is less than $500 a year. 36% of the population is below poverty level and nearly 35% of the population is unemployed. Annually a large section of the country is submerged in floods and as sea levels rise with global warming Bangladesh will face more drastic environmental threats with devastating economic implications.
Lack of industrialization, poor infrastructures, and untapped human resources will continue to challenge Bangladesh in its quest for economic well being. Poverty and disasters will continue to test the moral and political fiber of the nation. There are no shortcuts out of the environmental and economic troubles of Bangladesh. But we must remember that in spite of all its difficulties, Bangladeshis have found a way to live in freedom, respect each other’s dignity and remain connected with God.
Very roughly speaking, there are four main kinds of political philosophy around today.
Libertarianism (also called "classical liberalism" or just "liberalism"): emphasizes ‘negative’ rights, i.e. the right not to have certain things done to you (be killed, robbed, etc.). The role of government is to protect us from outside invaders and domestic criminals who would otherwise violate our rights, but otherwise to leave us alone. This is a somewhat old-fashioned view, associated with the 17th century John Locke and the 19th century John Stuart Mill, but it has recently made a big comeback, especially because of Robert Nozick’s book Anarchy, State, and Utopia, perhaps the ultimate philosophical argument for small government. Philosopher John Hospers has even run for President for the Libertarian Party. The libertarianism described here is a pure or extreme version which does not necessarily conform precisely to the views of real-life libertarians, who are likely to make some concessions to the objections listed below.
Objections: 1. Libertarians would allow anything between consenting adults, at least in private, including drug use, prostitution, hard-core pornography, sodomy, flag burning, etc. etc. Is this too much liberty?
2. Libertarians would not interfere with the economy at all, so they would allow monopolies, for instance, and would totally scrap welfare, Medicaid, Medicare, etc. Would this be good for society?
3. Libertarians regard society as just a mass of individuals in the same place under the same government, ignoring common traditions, culture, religion, etc. Does this ignore the value of patriotism, community, etc.?
4. In a libertarian society, some people would end up with much more wealth than others, perhaps just by inheriting it. Is this fair?
5. In reality libertarianism as an impartial ideal of maximum freedom and justice seems to be a kind of fantasy. We are all born into a world in which property is neither evenly distributed nor freely available. This situation came about through history, in which piracy, imperialism, genocide, slavery, etc. have all had an important part. No individual is free just to live their own life, since (for instance) there is no free land to farm. We all depend on others (especially if we are poor or handicapped by low social status, low intelligence, unpopular ethnicity, or disability, etc.). A government that adopts a completely laissez faire approach effectively sides with the pirates, slave-owners, etc. and their descendants.
Socialism: the exact opposite of libertarianism. Values ‘positive’ rights, such as the right to healthcare, food, shelter, work, etc., more than ‘negative’ rights. The economy would be run for the good of society as a whole. Very few people today are real socialists, but many agree with parts of this theory.
Objections: 1. Would this be efficient?
2. Is it fair to violate some people’s ‘negative’ rights to provide for the ‘positive’ rights of others?
3. Do so-called positive rights exist at all?
Liberalism (also called "modern liberalism"): a cross between libertarianism and socialism. Its most famous philosophical defender is John Rawls. Rawls equates justice with fairness. A fair distribution of rights and other goods, he says, is one that everyone would agree to from behind a veil of ignorance about their place in society. He calls this the original position. Rawls believes that in the original position people would support two fundamental principles of justice:
I. "Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others." [i.e. freedom and (negative) rights should be equal, and there should be as much freedom and opportunity as possible.]
II. "Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone's advantage, and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all." [i.e. all inequalities should be avoided if possible, unless they benefit everyone.]
In other words, he believes in the basic ideal of libertarianism BUT he also thinks people would prudently limit this, just in case they end up near the bottom of society, by adding some form of welfare. Inevitably some people will be worse off than others, but we should make them as well off as we can.
Objections: 1. Is the best way to decide what justice requires imagining what people would agree to in certain fictional, indeed impossible, circumstances?
2. Would such people in fact agree to precisely the combination of freedom and equality that Rawls comes up with?
3. Feminist philosopher Susan Moller Okin objects that Rawls says very little about gender issues. Women, though, must be included in any satisfactory theory of justice, she says. Current gender injustices seriously undermine equality of opportunity. Furthermore, the family is where we learn our basic values, so the family must be just if society is to be just.
Communitarianism: a new (although it can be traced back to Aristotle) alternative to liberalism and libertarianism. Some communitarians are just moderate socialists, but others are nationalists or patriots. Communitarians value tradition; ethnic, regional or national identity; and the common culture that comes from religion or shared moral values. They emphasize the importance of belonging to a certain community and sharing in its traditions, values and culture. They think that libertarians and liberals over-emphasize the importance of the individual and stress that "no man is an island" and "it takes a village to raise a child." Hegel can be thought of as a good example of this type of thinker.
Objections: 1. Even libertarians allow people the option of celebrating their heritage, culture, etc., but no-one should be forced to do so.
2. Emphasizing the community is often a cover for socialism or nationalism, which in turn lead to communism and fascism.
3. Communitarianism seems vague and more a reaction against libertarianism than a philosophy of its own.
A note on conservatism:
Conservatism generally means sticking to the old ways of doing or thinking about things. Conservatives tend to be skeptical about theories of the kind outlined above. Instead they value the wisdom inherent in tradition and whatever institutions have evolved or arisen to meet the demands of each particular culture. If something clearly needs to be changed, they would say, then by all means change it, but do so cautiously. And if it ain't broke, don't fix it just to fit the theory that some philosopher devised in his or her study. There is a similarity with communitarianism here, but in the USA the traditional political institutions, and the philosophical justifications given for them, embody rather libertarian ideals. The philosophical division of libertarian/liberal/communitarian does not neatly fit the ordinary division of liberal/conservative or Republican/Democrat. Basically almost everyone today is some kind of liberal, accepting some role for the state in providing goods such as education as well as protecting individual rights. Republicans tend to lean towards libertarianism, but most recognize that the theory has its flaws. That's why the Libertarian Party is its own organization. Democrats tend to lean more in the direction of socialism, but again most are really liberals, seeing that in practice pure socialism tends to produce inefficiency and misery. Contemporary "socialists" in Europe are not really socialists at all, on the whole.
Geographical Information of Bangladesh:
With an area of about 144,000 sq km, Bangladesh is situated between latitudes 20~34' and 26~38' north and latitudes 88~01' and 92~41' east. The country is bordered by India on the east, west and north and by the Bay of Bengal on the south. There is also a small strip of frontier with Burma on the southeastern edge. The land is a deltaic plain with a network of numerous rivers and canals.
The "independent, sovereign republic of Bangladesh" was first proclaimed in a radio message broadcast from a captured station in Chittagong on March 26, 1971. Two days later, the "Voice of Independent Bangladesh" announced that a "Major Zia" (actually Ziaur Rahman, later president of Bangladesh) would form a new government with himself occupying the "presidency." Zia's self appointment was considered brash, especially by Mujib, who in subsequent years would hold a grudge. Quickly realizing that his action was unpopular, Zia yielded his "office" to the incarcerated Mujib. The following month a provisional government was established in Calcutta by a number of leading Awami League members who had escaped from East Pakistan. On April 17, the "Mujibnagar" government formally proclaimed independence and named Mujib as its president. On December 6, India became the first nation to recognize the new Bangladeshi government. When the West Pakistani surrender came ten days later, the provisional government had some organization in place, but it was not until December 22 that members of the new government arrived in Dhaka, having been forced to heed the advice of the Indian military that order must quickly be restored. Representatives of the Bangladeshi government and the Mukti Bahini were absent from the ceremony of surrender of the Pakistan Army to the Indian Army on December 16. Bangladeshis considered this ceremony insulting, and it did much to sour relations between Bangladesh and India.
At independence, Mujib was in jail in West Pakistan, where he had been taken after his arrest on March 25. He had been convicted of treason by a military court and sentenced to death. Yahya did not carry out the sentence, perhaps as a result of pleas made by many foreign governments. With the surrender of Pakistani forces in Dhaka and the Indian proclamation of a cease-fire on the western front, Yahya relinquished power to a civilian government under Bhutto, who released Mujib and permitted him to return to Dhaka via London and New Delhi.
On January 10, 1972, Mujib arrived in Dhaka to a tumultuous welcome. Mujib first assumed the title of president but vacated that office two days later to become the prime minister. Mujib pushed through a new constitution that was modeled on the Indian Constitution. The Constitution--adopted on November 4, 1972--stated that the new nation was to have a prime minister appointed by the president and approved by a single-house parliament. The Constitution enumerates a number of principles on which Bangladesh is to be governed. These have come to be known as the tenets of "Mujibism" (or "Mujibbad"), which include the four pillars of nationalism, socialism, secularism, and democracy. In the following years, however, Mujib discarded everything Bangladesh theoretically represented: constitutionalism, freedom of speech, rule of law, the right to dissent, and equal opportunity of employment.
Bangladesh National Icons:
The National Emblem of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the national flower Shapla (water Lily) surrounded by two sheaves of rice, four stars and a bud with three tender leaves.
|The National Emblem|
The National Parliament (Sangsad Bhaban) is the seat of the government. Situated at the center of Dhaka city, it is an architectural wonder. It was designed by the famous American architect Louis Kahn.
|The National Parliament|
The Water Lily ( shapla ) is the national flower of Bangladesh. It is found almost in every water body in the country.
|The Water Lily|
Shaheed Minar (Martyrs Memorial): It has always been the source of our national inspiration. We come here to commemorate Language Martyrs of 1952.
The National Monument reminds of those who sacrificed their lives for the independence. Situated at Savar near Dhaka, it is a tourist spot.
|The National Monument|
Worldwide Known Royal Bengal Tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh. This majestic beast finds its home in mangrove forests of the Sundarbans in the southern part of the country.
|Royal Bengal Tiger|
The Doel ( magpie robin) is the national bird of Bangladesh. It is famous for its sweet look and melodious whistle and is found everywhere especially in rural Bangladesh.
The Jack fruit [Kathal] is our national fruit. Thorny in outlook this fruit is big in size. The fruit is juicy and delicious. It is also widely consumed as curry.